Muhammad Ali, Shu’aibu N Halliru, Maryam M Qaraye, Adal M Salihi
For many years, human population across the world utilizes environmental resources such as plants to treat infectious diseases. The study was aimed to determine the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of various extracts of S. birrea against some bacteria associated with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Four (4) clinical isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella) isolated from urine samples collected from patients with urinary tract infections attending Abubakar Imam Urology Hospital Kano, Northern Nigeria were tested against aqueous and methanol extracts of Sclerocarya birrea stem bark using agar well diffusion method. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of the extract was conducted using conventional laboratory methods. The result showed that the stem bark extract of Sclerocarya birrea contain saponin, phenol, terpenoid, alkaloid, flavonoid, anthraquinones and tannin. Quantitatively, flavonoid was found to be the most abundant constituent making about 16.5% followed by phenol 12.5%. The result of antibacterial activity of the extracts against the test isolated indicated that the extracts were active against the isolate with higher activity shown by methanol extract (13.5 mm) when compared to aqueous extract (11.4 mm). Escherichia coli was found to be the most sensitive isolate (13.8 mm) while Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the least susceptible to the isolate (12.3 mm). However, the differences in the sensitivity of the isolates to the extracts is not significant at p<0.05. It is concluded that the stem bark extracts of Sclerocarya birrea is active against some bacterial isolates associated with UTI.